9 media literacy guides and what they have in common

نوشته Molly Stellino
Apr 15, 2019 در Journalism Basics

These quick and easy shortcuts guide users through the step-by-step process of information verification.



Use this acronym to evaluate the truthfulness of information.

  • Evidence – Do the facts hold up?
  • Source – Who made this, and can I trust them?
  • Context – What’s the big picture?
  • Audience – Who is the intended audience?
  • Purpose – Why was this made?
  • Execution – How is the information presented?

2. Seven Questions

National Association for Media Literacy Education

Asking these questions sparks critical thinking when analyzing data.

  • Why was this made?
  • Who made it?
  • What is missing?
  • How might different people interpret it?
  • How do I know this is true?
  • Who might benefit from this message?
  • Who might be harmed by this message?

3. Six Consumer Questions


These questions assist the research process by providing a guide to media literacy.

  • Who made this?
  • How was this made?
  • Why was this made?
  • When was this made?
  • What is this missing?
  • Where do I go from here?

4. I.M.V.A.I.N.

Center for News Literacy

Ask yourself these five questions to determine if information is reliable.

  • Is this an independent source?
  • Are there multiple sources?
  • Is the source providing verifiable information?
  • Is this an authoritative and/or informed source?
  • Is this a named source?

5. Is This Story Share-Worthy: Infographic


This infographic takes users through the process of deciding whether or not a news story has value and should be shared.

  • Is it real?
  • Is it well-made?
  • Is it news or opinion?
  • Is it supported by facts?
  • Is it biased?
  • Is the bias open or sneaky?
  • Does it entertain and/or raise awareness?

6. Lesson Plan

Center for News Literacy

The definition of facts and context is broken down to help news consumers understand that the job of journalists, which is to assemble facts with context to explain what’s happened.

  • Facts
    • Who?
    • What?
    • Where?
    • When?
    • Why?
    • How many?
  • Context
    • How unusual, unexpected or important is this?
    • What led up to this?
    • What caused it?
    • What’s the impact?
    • What happens next?

7. Five Key Questions

Center for Media Literacy

When students ask themselves these questions, they learn core media literacy skills.

  • Who created this message?
  • What creative techniques are used to attract my attention?
  • How might different people understand this message differently?
  • What values, lifestyles, and points of view are represented in, or omitted from, this message?
  • Why is this message being sent?

8. Five Core Concepts

Center for Media Literacy

CML lists the five concepts to consider when evaluating information and understanding media literacy.

  • Authorship
  • Format
  • Audience
  • Content
  • Purpose

9. Four Moves

Mike Caulfield

Follow these four steps when you are presented with a claim and want to get closer to the truth.

  • Check for previous work: Look around to see if someone else has already fact-checked the claim.
  • Go upstream to the source: Most web content is not original. Get to the original source to understand the trustworthiness of the information.
  • Read laterally: Once you get to the source of the claim, read what other people have to say about the source. The truth is in the network.
  • Circle back: If you get lost, hit dead ends, or find yourself going down an increasingly confusing rabbit hole, back up and start over knowing what you know now. You’re likely to take a more informed path with different search terms and better decisions.

Here’s what they all have in common:

  • Who made it? Is the author of the information reputable and trustworthy? Do they have credentials?
  • What is the evidence? Does the article include evidence? Is the evidence from an expert source? Is the evidence accepted by other experts in the field?
  • Why was this made? Is the purpose of the article to inform? Or is it to persuade, anger, sell or entertain?
  • Is it missing context? Is this article the whole story? Or is it omitting information to achieve its own agenda?

This article was originally published by the Arizona State University News Co/Lab. It was republished on IJNet with permission. 

Main image CC-licensed by Unsplash via Banter Snaps.