Five ways for journalists to cultivate sources

by Beth Winegarner
Jun 11, 2012 in Journalism Basics

Sources are one of a reporter’s biggest assets. Over time, if you forge relationships with the right sources, you’ll find that they can become the gateway to career-making scoops. Here's how to cultivate them.

Embrace the small talk

Many reporters aren’t into schmoozing, but a few friendly words can set you apart from reporters who treat sources like information-vending machines instead of human beings. Think of small talk as the mayo in the tuna salad sandwich of your reporting.

When you reconnect with a source you’ve talked to before, ask how their day is going. Genuinely listen when they respond. Pay attention to whether they’re married or have kids, and ask occasionally how their family (or even a pet) is doing. If you have something in common with that source, take a moment to discuss the topic, whether it’s a sports team or an obscure favorite food...

Don’t be a stranger

If you find someone you think will be a goldmine of information, check in with them regularly, even if you don’t need to interview them. This is another good time for small talk, and to ask if there have been any developments on a topic you’ve discussed before. Look through your contacts and see if there’s someone you haven’t heard from in a while. Give them a call; they might just have a scoop for you.

Email is a good way to touch base with sources, though they may be reluctant to put anything hush-hush into writing. Phone calls are better. In person is often best, whether you just drop by to see sources on your way to a City Hall meeting or you grab coffee regularly with them. The key is making sure they don’t forget you, and that they remember you’re interested in what they know...

What happens “off the record” stays “off the record”

We all know reporters who say there’s no such thing as “off the record,” or who promise to keep a source’s information in confidence, and then quote them in the next day’s news. Don’t be that reporter.

Many sources want to tell you more than their higher-ups will allow. Of course, such information can be incredibly valuable, especially if you can use it to get on-the-record sources to verify what you’ve heard. If someone says they want to go off the record with you, say yes — and mean it. (But don’t be afraid to ask: “Is there anyone I should talk to who may be more likely to speak on the record?”)..

Ask your sources to recommend more sources

At the end of interviews, ask your source whether there’s anyone else you should talk to about the topic at hand. It’s likely they’ll have someone in mind.

Sources inside an administration, whether it’s a government agency, a school, or a business, will probably recommend colleagues, while citizens and rabble-rousers are apt to connect you with birds of the same feather. Good sources of both stripes will hook you up with sources “across the aisle,” so to speak. Take your source’s advice, but if they’ve got a bias to protect, make sure you round out their recommendations with other voices.

Avoid getting too friendly with sources

When you interview someone often, when you write about them regularly, they can start to feel like a friend. That’s especially true if you follow the rest of these tips, because you’ll wind up feeling closer to them than you would an average source.

Getting too close can jeopardize your objectivity. If you become friends, you may find yourself telling that source’s side of the story — to the detriment of the other sides. You may withhold important information to protect the source unnecessarily...Be careful to stay on the right side of that line, and you’ll be well on your way to scooping the competition.

Image via Morguefile.

This is an excerpt of the full article. To read more, click here.

This article first appeared on Poynter Online, IJNet’s partner and the website of the Poynter Institute, a school serving journalism and democracy for more than 35 years. Poynter offers news and training that fits any schedule, with individual coaching, in-person seminars, online courses, webinars and more. The complete article is translated in full into IJNet’s six other languages with permission.